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Calpena E, Cuellar A, Bala K, Swagemakers SMA, Koelling N, McGowan SJ, Phipps JM, Balasubramanian M, Cunningham ML, Douzgou S, Lattanzi W, Morton JEV, Shears D, Weber A, Wilson LC, Lord H, Lester T, Johnson D, Wall SA, Twigg SRF, Mathijssen IMJ, Boyadjiev SA, Wilkie AOM
SMAD6 Variants in Craniosynostosis: Genotype and Phenotype Evaluation
Genet in Med (2020)
Purpose: Enrichment of heterozygous missense and truncating SMAD6 variants was previously reported in nonsyndromic sagittal and metopic synostosis, and interaction of SMAD6 variants with a common polymorphism near BMP2 (rs1884302) was proposed to contribute to inconsistent penetrance. We determined the occurrence of SMAD6 variants in all types of craniosynostosis, evaluated the impact of different missense variants on SMAD6 function, and tested independently whether rs1884302 genotype significantly modifies the phenotype.
Methods: We performed resequencing of SMAD6 in 795 unsolved patients with any type of craniosynostosis and genotyped rs1884302 in SMAD6-positive individuals and relatives. We examined the inhibitory activity and stability of SMAD6 missense variants.
Results: We found 18 (2.3%) different rare damaging SMAD6 variants, with the highest prevalence in metopic synostosis (5.8%) and an 18.3-fold enrichment of loss-of-function variants comparedwith gnomAD data (P < 10-7). Combined with eight additional variants, ≥20/26 were transmitted from an unaffected parent but rs1884302 genotype did not predict phenotype.
Conclusion: Pathogenic SMAD6 variants substantially increase the risk of both nonsyndromic and syndromic presentations of craniosynostosis, especially metopic synostosis. Functional analysis is important to evaluate missense variants. Genotyping of rs1884302 is not clinically useful. Mechanisms to explain the remarkable diversity of phenotypes associated with SMAD6 variants remain obscure.
An evolutionary ancient mechanism for regulation of hemoglobin expression in vertebrate red cells
The oxygen-transport function of hemoglobin (HB) is thought to have arisen ~500 million years ago, roughly coinciding with the divergence between jawless (Agnatha) and jawed (Gnathostomata) vertebrates. Intriguingly, extant HBs of jawless and jawed vertebrates were shown to have evolved twice, and independently, from different ancestral globin proteins. This raises the question whether erythroid-specific expression of HB also evolved twice independently. In all jawed vertebrates studied to date, one of the Hb gene clusters is linked to the widely expressed Nprl3 gene. Here we show that the nprl3-linked hb locus of a jawless vertebrate, the river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis), shares a range of structural and functional properties with the equivalent jawed vertebrate Hb locus. Functional analysis demonstrates that an erythroid-specific enhancer is located in intron 7 of lamprey nprl3, which corresponds to the NPRL3 intron 7 MCS-R1 enhancer of jawed vertebrates. Collectively, our findings signify the presence of an nprl3-linked multi-globin gene locus, which contained a remote enhancer driving globin expression in erythroid cells, prior to the divergence of jawless and jawed vertebrates. Different globin genes from this ancestral cluster evolved in the current nprl3-linked hb genes in jawless and jawed vertebrates. This provides a solution for the enigma of how, in different species, globin genes linked to the same adjacent gene could undergo convergent evolution.
Re-evaluation of human BDCA-2+ DC during acute sterile skin inflammation
J Exp Med. (2020) 2:217(3).
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) produce type I interferon (IFN-I) and are traditionally defined as being BDCA-2+CD123+. pDCs are not readily detectable in healthy human skin, but have been suggested to accumulate in wounds. Here, we describe a CD1a-bearing BDCA-2+CD123int DC subset that rapidly infiltrates human skin wounds and comprises a major DC population. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we show that these cells are largely activated DCs acquiring features compatible with lymph node homing and antigen presentation, but unexpectedly express both BDCA-2 and CD123, potentially mimicking pDCs. Furthermore, a third BDCA-2-expressing population, Axl+Siglec-6+ DCs (ASDC), was also found to infiltrate human skin during wounding. These data demonstrate early skin infiltration of a previously unrecognized CD123intBDCA-2+CD1a+ DC subset during acute sterile inflammation, and prompt a re-evaluation of previously ascribed pDC involvement in skin disease.
Li X, Wang R, Fan P, Yao X, Qin L, Peng Y, Ma M, Asley N, Chang X, Feng Y, Hu Y, Zhang Y, Li C, Fanning G, Jones S, Verrill C, Maldonado-Perez D, Sopp P, Waugh C, Taylor S, Mcgowan S, Cerundolo V, Conlon C, McMichael A, Lu S, Wang X, Li N, Dong T.
A Comprehensive Analysis of Key Immune Checkpoint Receptors on Tumor-Infiltrating T Cells From Multiple Types of Cancer.
Front Oncol. (2019) 9:1066
Background: Cancer patients often display dysfunctional antitumor T-cell responses. Because noteworthy benefits of immune checkpoint pathway blockade, such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors, have been achieved in multiple advanced cancers, the next critical question is which mono-blockade or combinatorial blockade regimens may reinvigorate antitumor T-cell immunity in those cancer patients while limiting immune-related adverse effects.
Method: This study recruited, in total, 172 primary cancer patients (131 were blood-tumor-matched patients) who were treatment-naïve prior to the surgeries or biopsies covering the eight most prevalent types of cancer. With access to fresh surgical samples, this study simultaneously investigated the ex vivo expression level of eight known immune checkpoint receptors [PD-1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 [CTLA-4], T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 [Tim-3], 2B4, killer cell lectin like receptor G1 [KLRG-1], TIGIT, B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator [BTLA], and CD160] on tumor-infiltrating T cells (TILs) and paired circulating T cells in blood from a 131-patient cohort.
Results: We found increased an expression of PD-1 and Tim-3 but a decreased expression of BTLA on TILs when compared with peripheral blood from multiple types of cancer. Moreover, our co-expression analysis of key immune checkpoint receptors delineates "shared" subsets as PD-1+Tim-3+TIGIT+2B4+KLRG-1-CTLA-4- and PD-1+TIGIT+2B4+Tim-3-KLRG-1-CTLA-4- from bulk CD8 TILs. Furthermore, we found that a higher frequency of advanced differentiation stage T cells (CD27-CCR7-CD45RA-) among the "shared" subset (PD-1+Tim-3+TIGIT+2B4+KLRG-1-CTLA-4-) in bulk CD8 TILs was associated with poorly differentiated cancer type in cervical cancer patients.
Conclusions: To our knowledge, our study is the first comprehensive analysis of key immune checkpoint receptors on T cells in treatment-naïve, primary cancer patients from the eight most prevalent types of cancer. These findings might provide useful information for future design of mono-blockade/combinatorial blockades and/or genetically modified T-cell immunotherapy.
Reconstruction of the Global Neural Crest Gene Regulatory Network In Vivo.
Dev Cell. (2019) 51:255-276
Precise control of developmental processes is encoded in the genome in the form of gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Such multi-factorial systems are difficult to decode in vertebrates owing to their complex gene hierarchies and dynamic molecular interactions. Here we present a genome-wide in vivo reconstruction of the GRN underlying development of the multipotent neural crest (NC) embryonic cell population. By coupling NC-specific epigenomic and transcriptional profiling at population and single-cell levels with genome/epigenome engineering in vivo, we identify multiple regulatory layers governing NC ontogeny, including NC-specific enhancers and super-enhancers, novel trans-factors, and cis-signatures allowing reverse engineering of the NC-GRN at unprecedented resolution. Furthermore, identification and dissection of divergent upstream combinatorial regulatory codes has afforded new insights into opposing gene circuits that define canonical and neural NC fates early during NC ontogeny. Our integrated approach, allowing dissection of cell-type-specific regulatory circuits in vivo, has broad implications for GRN discovery and investigation.
Gooding S, Olechnowicz SWZ, Morris EV, Armitage AE, Arezes J, Frost J, Repapi E, Edwards JR, Ashley N, Waugh C, Gray N, Martinez-Hackert E, Lim PJ, Pasricha SR, Knowles H, Mead AJ, Ramasamy K, Drakesmith H, Edwards CM.
Transcriptomic profiling of the myeloma bone-lining niche reveals BMP signalling inhibition to improve bone disease.
Nat Commun. (2019) 10:4533
Multiple myeloma is an incurable, bone marrow-dwelling malignancy that disrupts bone homeostasis causing skeletal damage and pain. Mechanisms underlying myeloma-induced bone destruction are poorly understood and current therapies do not restore lost bone mass. Using transcriptomic profiling of isolated bone lining cell subtypes from a murine myeloma model, we find that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling is upregulated in stromal progenitor cells. BMP signalling has not previously been reported to be dysregulated in myeloma bone disease. Inhibition of BMP signalling in vivo using either a small molecule BMP receptor antagonist or a solubilized BMPR1a-FC receptor ligand trap prevents trabecular and cortical bone volume loss caused by myeloma, without increasing tumour burden. BMP inhibition directly reduces osteoclastogenesis, increases osteoblasts and bone formation, and suppresses bone marrow sclerostin levels. In summary we describe a novel role for the BMP pathway in myeloma-induced bone disease that can be therapeutically targeted.
Synergistic silencing of α-globin and induction of γ-globin by histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat as a potential therapy for β-thalassaemia.
Sci Rep. (2019) 9:11649
β-Thalassaemia is one of the most common monogenic diseases with no effective cure in the majority of patients. Unbalanced production of α-globin in the presence of defective synthesis of β-globin is the primary mechanism for anaemia in β-thalassaemia. Clinical genetic data accumulated over three decades have clearly demonstrated that direct suppression of α-globin and induction of γ-globin are effective in reducing the globin chain imbalance in erythroid cells hence improving the clinical outcome of patients with β-thalassaemia. Here, we show that the histone deacetylase inhibitor drug, vorinostat, in addition to its beneficial effects for patients with β-thalassaemia through induction of γ-globin, has the potential to simultaneously suppress α-globin. We further show that vorinostat exhibits these synergistic beneficial effects in globin gene expression at nanomolar concentrations without perturbing erythroid expansion, viability, differentiation or the transcriptome. This new evidence will be helpful for the interpretation of existing clinical trials and future clinical studies that are directed towards finding a cure for β-thalassaemia using vorinostat.
Majeed syndrome: description of a novel mutation and therapeutic response to bisphosphonates and IL-1 blockade with anakinra.
Majeed syndrome, resulting from biallelic mutations in LPIN2, is a rare autosomal recessive autoinflammatory syndrome, originally described as a triad of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) or chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO), congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia (CDA) and inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis. The CNO can affect various bones including the mandible, clavicle, spine and tibia. Unlike sporadic CNO, which usually affects children between 4 and 15 years, CNO in Majeed syndrome is earlier in onset and is often refractory to conventionally prescribed NSAIDs and steroids. The CDA reflects bone marrow ineffective erythropoiesis, with typical morphological abnormalities (e.g. binucleate erythroblasts, inter-nuclear bridging). The anaemia is microcytic and highly variable, ranging from sub-clinical to transfusion-dependent, and is distinct from anaemia of chronic disease. The inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis or Sweet syndrome can present as pustulosis, plaques, nodules or ulceration and has been recognized as being variably present in Majeed syndrome while penetrance of the CNO and CDA has been described as complete. We describe a consanguineous Pakistani family where the index child presented in infancy with a conglomeration of features indicative of possible Majeed syndrome.
DOT1L inhibition reveals a distinct subset of enhancers dependent on H3K79 methylation.
Nat Commun. (2019) 10:2803
Enhancer elements are a key regulatory feature of many important genes. Several general features including the presence of specific histone modifications are used to demarcate potentially active enhancers. Here we reveal that putative enhancers marked with H3 lysine 79 (H3K79) di or trimethylation (me2/3) (which we name H3K79me2/3 enhancer elements or KEEs) can be found in multiple cell types. Mixed lineage leukemia gene (MLL) rearrangements (MLL-r) such as MLL-AF4 are a major cause of incurable acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL). Using the DOT1L inhibitor EPZ-5676 in MLL-AF4 leukemia cells, we show that H3K79me2/3 is required for maintaining chromatin accessibility, histone acetylation and transcription factor binding specifically at KEEs but not non-KEE enhancers. We go on to show that H3K79me2/3 is essential for maintaining enhancer-promoter interactions at a subset of KEEs. Together, these data implicate H3K79me2/3 as having a functional role at a subset of active enhancers in MLL-AF4 leukemia cells.
Hypoxia-induced switch in SNAT2/SLC38A2 regulation generates endocrine resistance in breast cancer
Tumor hypoxia is associated with poor patient outcomes in estrogen receptor-α-positive (ERα+) breast cancer. Hypoxia is known to affect tumor growth by reprogramming metabolism and regulating amino acid (AA) uptake. Here, we show that the glutamine transporter, SNAT2, is the AA transporter most frequently induced by hypoxia in breast cancer, and is regulated by hypoxia both in vitro and in vivo in xenografts. SNAT2 induction in MCF7 cells was also regulated by ERα, but it became predominantly a hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-dependent gene under hypoxia. Relevant to this, binding sites for both HIF-1α and ERα overlap in SNAT2's cis-regulatory elements. In addition, the down-regulation of SNAT2 by the ER antagonist fulvestrant was reverted in hypoxia. Overexpression of SNAT2 in vitro to recapitulate the levels induced by hypoxia caused enhanced growth, particularly after ERα inhibition, in hypoxia, or when glutamine levels were low. SNAT2 up-regulation in vivo caused complete resistance to antiestrogen and, partially, anti-VEGF therapies. Finally, high SNAT2 expression levels correlated with hypoxia profiles and worse outcome in patients given antiestrogen therapies. Our findings show a switch in the regulation of SNAT2 between ERα and HIF-1α, leading to endocrine resistance in hypoxia. Development of drugs targeting SNAT2 may be of value for a subset of hormone-resistant breast cancer.
Unravelling Intratumoral Heterogeneity through High-Sensitivity Single-Cell Mutational Analysis and Parallel RNA Sequencing
Mol Cell. (2019) pii: S1097-2765(19)30009-7
Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has emerged as a powerful tool for resolving transcriptional heterogeneity. However, its application to studying cancerous tissues is currently hampered by the lack of coverage across key mutation hotspots in the vast majority of cells; this lack of coverage prevents the correlation of genetic and transcriptional readouts from the same single cell. To overcome this, we developed TARGET-seq, a method for the high-sensitivity detection of multiple mutations within single cells from both genomic and coding DNA, in parallel with unbiased whole-transcriptome analysis. Applying TARGET-seq to 4,559 single cells, we demonstrate how this technique uniquely resolves transcriptional and genetic tumor heterogeneity in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) stem and progenitor cells, providing insights into deregulated pathways of mutant and non-mutant cells. TARGET-seq is a powerful tool for resolving the molecular signatures of genetically distinct subclones of cancer cells.
Does osteogenic potential of clonal human bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells correlate with their vascular supportive ability?
Stem Cell Res Ther. (2018) 9(1):351
BACKGROUND: Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hBM MSCs) have multiple functions, critical for skeletal formation and function. Their functional heterogeneity, however, represents a major challenge for their isolation and in developing potency and release assays to predict their functionality prior to transplantation. Additionally, potency, biomarker profiles and defining mechanisms of action in a particular clinical setting are increasing requirements of Regulatory Agencies for release of hBM MSCs as Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products for cellular therapies. Since the healing of bone fractures depends on the coupling of new blood vessel formation with osteogenesis, we hypothesised that a correlation between the osteogenic and vascular supportive potential of individual hBM MSC-derived CFU-F (colony forming unit-fibroblastoid) clones might exist.
METHODS: We tested this by assessing the lineage (i.e. adipogenic (A), osteogenic (O) and/or chondrogenic (C)) potential of individual hBM MSC-derived CFU-F clones and determining if their osteogenic (O) potential correlated with their vascular supportive profile in vitro using lineage differentiation assays, endothelial-hBM MSC vascular co-culture assays and transcriptomic (RNAseq) analyses.
RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that the majority of CFU-F (95%) possessed tri-lineage, bi-lineage or uni-lineage osteogenic capacity, with 64% of the CFU-F exhibiting tri-lineage AOC potential. We found a correlation between the osteogenic and vascular tubule supportive activity of CFU-F clones, with the strength of this association being donor dependent. RNAseq of individual clones defined gene fingerprints relevant to this correlation.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a donor-dependent correlation between osteogenic and vascular supportive potential of hBM MSCs and important gene signatures that support these functions that are relevant to their bone regenerative properties.
SCL/TAL1 cooperates with Polycomb RYBP-PRC1 to suppress alternative lineages in blood-fated cells.
Nat Commun. (2018) 9(1):5375
During development, it is unclear if lineage-fated cells derive from multilineage-primed progenitors and whether active mechanisms operate to restrict cell fate. Here we investigate how mesoderm specifies into blood-fated cells. We document temporally restricted co-expression of blood (Scl/Tal1), cardiac (Mesp1) and paraxial (Tbx6) lineage-affiliated transcription factors in single cells, at the onset of blood specification, supporting the existence of common progenitors. At the same time-restricted stage, absence of SCL results in expansion of cardiac/paraxial cell populations and increased cardiac/paraxial gene expression, suggesting active suppression of alternative fates. Indeed, SCL normally activates expression of co-repressor ETO2 and Polycomb-PRC1 subunits (RYBP, PCGF5) and maintains levels of Polycomb-associated histone marks (H2AK119ub/H3K27me3). Genome-wide analyses reveal ETO2 and RYBP co-occupy most SCL target genes, including cardiac/paraxial loci. Reduction of Eto2 or Rybp expression mimics Scl-null cardiac phenotype. Therefore, SCL-mediated transcriptional repression prevents mis-specification of blood-fated cells, establishing active repression as central to fate determination processes.
From Pioneer to Repressor: Bimodal foxd3 Activity Dynamically Remodels Neural Crest Regulatory Landscape In Vivo.
Dev Cell. (2018) 47(5):608-628
The neural crest (NC) is a transient embryonic stem cell-like population characterized by its multipotency and broad developmental potential. Here, we perform NC-specific transcriptional and epigenomic profiling of foxd3-mutant cells in vivo to define the gene regulatory circuits controlling NC specification. Together with global binding analysis obtained by foxd3 biotin-ChIP and single cell profiles of foxd3-expressing premigratory NC, our analysis shows that, during early steps of NC formation, foxd3 acts globally as a pioneer factor to prime the onset of genes regulating NC specification and migration by re-arranging the chromatin landscape, opening cis-regulatory elements and reshuffling nucleosomes. Strikingly, foxd3 then gradually switches from an activator to its well-described role as a transcriptional repressor and potentially uses differential partners for each role. Taken together, these results demonstrate that foxd3 acts bimodally in the neural crest as a switch from "permissive" to "repressive" nucleosome and chromatin organization to maintain multipotency and define cell fates.
Germinal Center B Cells Replace Their Antigen Receptors in Dark Zones and Fail Light Zone Entry when Immunoglobulin Gene Mutations are Damaging.
Immunity (2018) 49(3):477-489.
Adaptive immunity involves the development of bespoke antibodies in germinal centers (GCs) through immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation (SHM) in GC dark zones (DZs) and clonal selection in light zones (LZs). Accurate selection requires that cells fully replace surface B cell receptors (BCRs) following SHM, but whether this happens before LZ entry is not clear. We found that most GC B cells degrade pre-SHM receptors before leaving the DZ, and that B cells acquiring crippling mutations during SHM rarely reached the LZ. Instead, apoptosis was triggered preferentially in late G1, a stage wherein cells with functional BCRs re-entered cell cycle or reduced surface expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 to enable LZ migration. Ectopic expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 was not sufficient for cells with damaging mutations to reach the LZ, suggesting that BCR-dependent cues may actively facilitate the transition. Thus, BCR replacement and pre-screening in DZs prevents the accumulation of clones with non-functional receptors and facilitates selection in the LZ.
Erythroferrone inhibits the induction of hepcidin by BMP6
Decreased hepcidin mobilizes iron, which facilitates erythropoiesis, but excess iron is pathogenic in beta-thalassemia. Erythropoietin (EPO) enhances erythroferrone (ERFE) synthesis by erythroblasts, and ERFE suppresses hepatic hepcidin production, through an unknown mechanism. The BMP/SMAD pathway in the liver is critical for control of hepcidin, and we show that EPO suppressed hepcidin and other BMP target genes in vivo in a partially ERFE-dependent manner. Furthermore, recombinant ERFE suppressed the hepatic BMP/SMAD pathway independently of changes in serum and liver iron, and in vitro, ERFE decreased SMAD 1/5/8 phosphorylation and inhibited expression of BMP target genes. ERFE specifically abrogated the induction of hepcidin by BMP5, BMP6 and BMP7, but had no or little effect on hepcidin induction by BMP2, 4, 9 or Activin B. A neutralising anti-ERFE antibody prevented the ability of ERFE to inhibit hepcidin induction by BMP5, BMP6 and BMP7. Cell-free HTRF assays showed that BMP5, BMP6 and BMP7 competed with anti-ERFE for binding to ERFE. We conclude that ERFE suppresses hepcidin by inhibiting hepatic BMP/SMAD signalling via preferentially impairing an evolutionarily closely related BMP sub-group of BMP5, BMP6 and BMP7. ERFE can act as a natural ligand trap generated by stimulated erythropoiesis in order to regulate availability of iron.
Disruption of TWIST1 translation by 5' UTR variants in Saethre-Chotzen syndrome
Hum Mutat. (2018) 39(10):1360-1365
Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS), one of the most common forms of syndromic craniosynostosis (premature fusion of the cranial sutures), results from haploinsufficiency of TWIST1, caused by deletions of the entire gene or loss-of-function variants within the coding region. To determine whether non-coding variants also contribute to SCS, we screened 14 genetically undiagnosed SCS patients using targeted capture sequencing, and identified novel single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of TWIST1 in two unrelated SCS cases. We show experimentally that these variants, which create translation start sites in the TWIST1 leader sequence, reduce translation from the main open reading frame (mORF). This is the first demonstration that non-coding SNVs of TWIST1 can cause SCS, and highlights the importance of screening the 5' UTR in clinically diagnosed SCS patients without a coding mutation. Similar 5' UTR variants, particularly of haploinsufficient genes, may represent an under-ascertained cause of monogenic disease.
Pellagatti A, Armstrong RN, Steeples V, Sharma E, Repapi E, Singh S, Sanchi A, Radujkovic A, Horn P, Dolatshad H, Roy S, Broxholme J, Lockstone H, Taylor S, Giagounidis A, Vyas P, Schuh A, Hamblin A, Papaemmanuil E, Killick S, Malcovati L, Hennrich ML, Gavin AC, Ho AD, Luft T, Hellström-Lindberg E, Cazzola M, Smith CWJ, Smith S, Boultwood J.
Impact of spliceosome mutations on RNA splicing in myelodysplasia: dysregulated genes/pathways and clinical associations.
Blood (2018) 132(12):1225-1240
SF3B1, SRSF2, and U2AF1 are the most frequently mutated splicing factor genes in the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We have performed a comprehensive and systematic analysis to determine the effect of these commonly mutated splicing factors on pre-mRNA splicing in the bone marrow stem/progenitor cells and in the erythroid and myeloid precursors in splicing factor mutant MDS. Using RNA-seq, we determined the aberrantly spliced genes and dysregulated pathways in CD34+ cells of 84 patients with MDS. Splicing factor mutations result in different alterations in splicing and largely affect different genes, but these converge in common dysregulated pathways and cellular processes, focused on RNA splicing, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting common mechanisms of action in MDS. Many of these dysregulated pathways and cellular processes can be linked to the known disease pathophysiology associated with splicing factor mutations in MDS, whereas several others have not been previously associated with MDS, such as sirtuin signaling. We identified aberrantly spliced events associated with clinical variables, and isoforms that independently predict survival in MDS and implicate dysregulation of focal adhesion and extracellular exosomes as drivers of poor survival. Aberrantly spliced genes and dysregulated pathways were identified in the MDS-affected lineages in splicing factor mutant MDS. Functional studies demonstrated that knockdown of the mitosis regulators SEPT2 and AKAP8, aberrantly spliced target genes of SF3B1 and SRSF2 mutations, respectively, led to impaired erythroid cell growth and differentiation. This study illuminates the effect of the common spliceosome mutations on the MDS phenotype and provides novel insights into disease pathophysiology.
Marie R, Pødenphant M, Koprowska K, Bærlocher L, Vulders RCM, Wilding J, Ashley N, McGowan SJ, van Strijp D, van Hemert F, Olesen T, Agersnap N, Bilenberg B, Sabatel C, Schira J, Kristensen A, Bodmer W, van der Zaag PJ, Mir KU
Sequencing of human genomes extracted from single cancer cells isolated in a valveless microfluidic device
Lab Chip (2018) 18:1891-1902
Sequencing the genomes of individual cells enables the direct determination of genetic heterogeneity amongst cells within a population. We have developed an injection-moulded valveless microfluidic device in which single cells from colorectal cancer derived cell lines (LS174T, LS180 and RKO) and fresh colorectal tumors have been individually trapped, their genomes extracted and prepared for sequencing using multiple displacement amplification (MDA). Ninety nine percent of the DNA sequences obtained mapped to a reference human genome, indicating that there was effectively no contamination of these samples from non-human sources. In addition, most of the reads are correctly paired, with a low percentage of singletons (0.17 ± 0.06%) and we obtain genome coverages approaching 90%. To achieve this high quality, our device design and process shows that amplification can be conducted in microliter volumes as long as the lysis is in sub-nanoliter volumes. Our data thus demonstrates that high quality whole genome sequencing of single cells can be achieved using a relatively simple, inexpensive and scalable device. Detection of genetic heterogeneity at the single cell level, as we have demonstrated for freshly obtained single cancer cells, could soon become available as a clinical tool to precisely match treatment with the properties of a patient's own tumor.
Reijnders MRF, Miller KA, Alvi M, Goos JAC, Lees MM, de Burca A, Henderson A, Kraus A, Mikat B, de Vries BBA, Isidor B, Kerr B, Marcelis C, Schluth-Bolard C, Deshpande C, Ruivenkamp CAL, Wieczorek D; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, Baralle D, Blair EM, Engels H, Lüdecke HJ, Eason J, Santen GWE, Clayton-Smith J, Chandler K, Tatton-Brown K, Payne K, Helbig K, Radtke K, Nugent KM, Cremer K, Strom TM, Bird LM, Sinnema M, Bitner-Glindzicz M, van Dooren MF, Alders M, Koopmans M, Brick L, Kozenko M, Harline ML, Klaassens M, Steinraths M, Cooper NS, Edery P, Yap P, Terhal PA, van der Spek PJ, Lakeman P, Taylor RL, Littlejohn RO, Pfundt R, Mercimek-Andrews S, Stegmann APA, Kant SG, McLean S, Joss S, Swagemakers SMA, Douzgou S, Wall SA, Küry S, Calpena E, Koelling N, McGowan SJ, Twigg SRF, Mathijssen IMJ, Nellaker C, Brunner HG, Wilkie AOM.
De Novo and Inherited Loss-of-Function Variants in TLK2: Clinical and Genotype-Phenotype Evaluation of a Distinct Neurodevelopmental Disorder.
Am J Hum Genet. (2018) 102:1195-1203
Next-generation sequencing is a powerful tool for the discovery of genes related to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Here, we report the identification of a distinct syndrome due to de novo or inherited heterozygous mutations in Tousled-like kinase 2 (TLK2) in 38 unrelated individuals and two affected mothers, using whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing technologies, matchmaker databases, and international collaborations. Affected individuals had a consistent phenotype, characterized by mild-borderline neurodevelopmental delay (86%), behavioral disorders (68%), severe gastro-intestinal problems (63%), and facial dysmorphism including blepharophimosis (82%), telecanthus (74%), prominent nasal bridge (68%), broad nasal tip (66%), thin vermilion of the upper lip (62%), and upslanting palpebral fissures (55%). Analysis of cell lines from three affected individuals showed that mutations act through a loss-of-function mechanism in at least two case subjects. Genotype-phenotype analysis and comparison of computationally modeled faces showed that phenotypes of these and other individuals with loss-of-function variants significantly overlapped with phenotypes of individuals with other variant types (missense and C-terminal truncating). This suggests that haploinsufficiency of TLK2 is the most likely underlying disease mechanism, leading to a consistent neurodevelopmental phenotype. This work illustrates the power of international data sharing, by the identification of 40 individuals from 26 different centers in 7 different countries, allowing the identification, clinical delineation, and genotype-phenotype evaluation of a distinct NDD caused by mutations in TLK2.
Aleksic T, Gray NE, Wu X, Rieunier G, Osher E, Mills J, Verrill C, Bryant RJ, Han C, Hutchinson K, Lambert A, Kumar R, Hamdy FC, Weyer-Czernilofsky U, Sanderson M, Bogenrieder T, Taylor S, Macaulay VM
Nuclear IGF-1R interacts with regulatory regions of chromatin to promote RNA polymerase II recruitment and gene expression associated with advanced tumor stage.
Cancer Res. (2018) 78:3497-3509
Internalization of ligand-activated type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) is followed by recycling to the plasma membrane, degradation or nuclear translocation. Nuclear IGF-1R reportedly associates with clinical response to IGF-1R inhibitory drugs, yet its role in the nucleus is poorly characterized. Here we investigated the significance of nuclear IGF-1R in clinical cancers and cell line models. In prostate cancers, IGF-1R was predominantly membrane-localized in benign glands, while malignant epithelium contained prominent internalized (nuclear/cytoplasmic) IGF-1R, and nuclear IGF-1R associated significantly with advanced tumor stage. Using ChIP-seq to assess global chromatin occupancy, we identified IGF-1R binding sites at or near transcription start sites of genes including JUN and FAM21, most sites coinciding with occupancy by RNA polymerase II (RNAPol2) and histone marks of active enhancers/promoters. IGF-1R was inducibly recruited to chromatin, directly binding DNA and interacting with RNAPol2 to upregulate expression of JUN and FAM21, shown to mediate tumor cell survival and IGF-induced migration. IGF-1 also enriched RNAPol2 on promoters containing IGF-1R binding sites. These functions were inhibited by IGF-1/2 neutralizing antibody xentuzumab (BI 836845), or by blocking receptor internalization. We detected nuclear IGF-1R on JUN and FAM21 promoters in fresh prostate cancers that contained abundant nuclear IGF-1R, with evidence of correlation between nuclear IGF-1R content and JUN expression in malignant prostatic epithelium. Taken together, these data reveal previously unrecognized molecular mechanisms through which IGFs promote tumorigenesis, with implications for therapeutic evaluation of anti-IGF drugs.
Telomerecat: A ploidy-agnostic method for estimating telomere length from whole genome sequencing data.
Sci Rep. (2018) 8(1):1300
Telomere length is a risk factor in disease and the dynamics of telomere length are crucial to our understanding of cell replication and vitality. The proliferation of whole genome sequencing represents an unprecedented opportunity to glean new insights into telomere biology on a previously unimaginable scale. To this end, a number of approaches for estimating telomere length from whole-genome sequencing data have been proposed. Here we present Telomerecat, a novel approach to the estimation of telomere length. Previous methods have been dependent on the number of telomeres present in a cell being known, which may be problematic when analysing aneuploid cancer data and non-human samples. Telomerecat is designed to be agnostic to the number of telomeres present, making it suited for the purpose of estimating telomere length in cancer studies. Telomerecat also accounts for interstitial telomeric reads and presents a novel approach to dealing with sequencing errors. We show that Telomerecat performs well at telomere length estimation when compared to leading experimental and computational methods. Furthermore, we show that it detects expected patterns in longitudinal data, repeated measurements, and cross-species comparisons. We also apply the method to a cancer cell data, uncovering an interesting relationship with the underlying telomerase genotype.
Duarte S, Woll PS, Buza-Vidas N, Chin DWL, Boukarabila H, Luís TC, Stenson L, Bouriez-Jones T, Ferry H, Mead AJ, Atkinson D, Jin S, Clark SA, Wu B, Repapi E, Gray N, Taylor S, Mutvei AP, Tsoi YL, Nerlov C, Lendahl U, Jacobsen SEW.
Canonical Notch signaling is dispensible for adult steady-state and stress myelo-erythropoiesis.
Blood (2018) 131:1712-1719
While an essential role for canonical Notch signaling in generation of hematopoietic stem cells in the embryo and in thymic T cell development is well established, its role in adult bone marrow (BM) myelopoiesis remains unclear. Some studies, analyzing myeloid progenitors in adult mice with inhibited Notch signaling, implicated distinct roles of canonical Notch signaling in regulation of progenitors for the megakaryocyte, erythroid and granulocyte-macrophage cell lineages. However, these studies might also have targeted other pathways. Therefore, we specifically deleted, in adult BM, the transcription factor recombination signal-binding protein J kappa (Rbpj), which canonical signaling through all Notch receptors converges. Notably, detailed progenitor staging established that canonical Notch signaling is fully dispensable for all investigated stages of megakaryocyte, erythroid and myeloid progenitors, in steady state unperturbed hematopoiesis, following competitive BM transplantation and in stress-induced erythropoiesis. Moreover, expression of key regulators of these hematopoietic lineages and Notch target genes were unaffected by Rbpj-deficiency in BM progenitor cells.
Karamitros D, Stoilova B, Aboukhalil Z, Hamey F, Reinisch A, Samitsch M, Quek L, Otto G, Repapi E, Doondeea J, Usukhbayar B, Calvo J, Taylor S, Goardon N, Six E, Pflumio F, Porcher C, Majeti R, Göttgens B, Vyas P.
Single-cell analysis reveals the continuum of human lympho-myeloid progenitor cells.
Nat Immunol. (2018) 19(1):85-97
The hierarchy of human hemopoietic progenitor cells that produce lymphoid and granulocytic-monocytic (myeloid) lineages is unclear. Multiple progenitor populations produce lymphoid and myeloid cells, but they remain incompletely characterized. Here we demonstrated that lympho-myeloid progenitor populations in cord blood - lymphoid-primed multi-potential progenitors (LMPPs), granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs) and multi-lymphoid progenitors (MLPs) - were functionally and transcriptionally distinct and heterogeneous at the clonal level, with progenitors of many different functional potentials present. Although most progenitors had the potential to develop into only one mature cell type ('uni-lineage potential'), bi- and rarer multi-lineage progenitors were present among LMPPs, GMPs and MLPs. Those findings, coupled with single-cell expression analyses, suggest that a continuum of progenitors execute lymphoid and myeloid differentiation, rather than only uni-lineage progenitors' being present downstream of stem cells.